Stem Cell Therapy For Knees

Stem cell therapy for knees has the potential to provide relief to a lot of people. Knee pain is an common condition that affects millions of Americans and people around the world. Considering the daily load that legs bear, a problem with your knees can limit movement. Knee pain can substantially reduce your quality of life and anti-inflammatory medication can only do so much. Suffice it to say, there exists significant interest in finding solutions to address knee pain and to restore healthy joint function. That’s where stem cell therapy for knees comes in!

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Stem Cell Therapy For Knees

 

Case Report: Bell’s Palsy and Stem Cell Therapy

Abstract

Bell’s palsy is the most common form of idiopathic facial paralysis that we see as physicians. We report on a 43-year-old woman with a two-year history of unilateral facial palsy that had stabilized, and was unresponsive to treatment with steroids and antiviral medications. Treatment with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells provided a significant improvement in symptomology with thirty days. Bell’s palsy is an idiopathic facial nerve weakness or palsyof 7th cranial nerve, thought to be caused by a viral or autoimmune origin. It is the most common cause of facial paralysis, accounting for 50-75% of cases and is part of a differential diagnosis of a cerebrovascular accident. Middle age patients are most commonly affected by the disease process, and it affect both males and females with an equal predilection. Resolution often begins within two weeks, and continues for up to six months. Many, if not most,resolve spontaneously. However, it is not uncommon to see patients
with relentless symptoms for 2-3 years extending to 7-10 years. Comorbid factors contribute to the likelihood of onset, and includepregnancy, diabetes, hypertension, Guillain-Barré syndrome,multiple sclerosis, Lyme Disease and myasthenia gravis, to name a few.

Introduction

The facial nerve originates from the motor nucleus of the pons. Entering the internal acoustic meatus in the petrous portion of the temporal bone. An arachnoid-lined dura mater sheath encases the nerve, exiting through the stylomastoid foramen. The extracranial distal fivebranches innervate the face distal to the stylomastoid foramen. The intracranial branches provide special sensation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue, and parasympathetic innervation to the stapedius, the salivary glands, the sinuses, the nose, the palatine nerves and the lacrimal gland amongst others. Thus, paralysis can involve multiple systems of the facial anatomy. There is drooping of the corner of the mouth, inability to close the affected eye, dry eye or epiphora, drooling, sensitivity to sound, pain of the face or behind the ear, inability to taste food and facial tingling.

There are changes of appearance, but the functional abnormalities are usually more debilitating. The facial nerve’s anatomical course has led some to believe that the nerve interacts with other anatomical structures along its path through the bone and soft tissue [1]. Specifically, the nerve is adjacent to the meninges and can develop entrapment neuropathies that can find relief with chiropractic manipulation and treatment [2].

The trapezius and sternomastoid muscles are supplied by the spinal accessory nerve and are capable of contributing to a Bell’s palsy by the proximity of the nuclei of the trigeminal, accessory and facial nerves. Traditional treatment involves antiviral medications within three days of onset, and oral steroids. The immunosuppressive aspect of steroids in this inflammatory process may be the key to resolving the symptomology. Sadly, many times patients are told that they have to learn to live with the symptomlogy. There are reports in the literature of acupuncture utilized within three days of symptom onset, relieving the effects of the palsy or completely curing 100 of 684 cases of facial nerve paralysis[3]. Traditional Chinese medicine oftener commends herbal treatments to supplement and treat facialpalsy[4]. Rubis reported in 2013 that she performed low level laser treatment for Bell’s palsy using a Gallium arsenide (GaAs) class 4 laser with a wavelength of 910 nm[5]. An improvement she reports were 70-80% after the first treatment. The use of laser treatment for nerve injury has been reported in the literature with successful results[6,7]. We report a case where adipose derived stem cells were used for precisely this purpose.

To read the entire case report, please click on the link below:

https://www.scitechnol.com/peer-review/case-report-bells-palsy-and-stem-cell-therapy-bXTy.php?article_id=10937

 

A Comparison of Health Outcomes in the Use of Stem Cells, Surgical, and Nonsurgical Approaches to Treat Degenerative Disk Disease: A Systematic Review

Systematic literature review.

This study provided a systematic review of randomized controlled trials which assessed the therapeutic effects of stem cell treatments, surgical interventions, and nonsurgical treatments on the outcomes of patients diagnoses with intervertebral disk degeneration (IDD).

A MEDLINE (2000-2017), PubMed (2000-2017), and Google scholar (1995-2000) database search was performed to identify published articles reporting on patient-reported clinical outcomes. A total of 12 articles were identified and met the inclusion criteria.

Literature evaluating the comparative treatment outcomes between patients who underwent surgical versus nonsurgical interventions demonstrated mixed findings in treatment efficacy. Although studies involving the manipulation of endogenous stem cells in fibrocartilage suggested that this application could be a potentially noninvasive, stem cell–based strategy to treat fibrocartilage degeneration, especially in patients with IDD.

The reviewed literature suggested that no clinical significance exists between surgical and nonsurgical treatment for IDD. The decision to undergo surgical or conservative treatment should depend on the patient’s state of health at the time of surgery, as well as any other potentially alarming factors (altered mental status, level of consciousness, comorbidities, etc) that could be exacerbated with the proposed treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells and fibrocartilage stem cells may also be an effective therapeutic option for the regeneration of a degenerated intervertebral disk. To move forward in finding an effective therapeutic treatment protocol for IDD, further research needs to be implemented that minimizes the limitation discussed in this review.

To read more, please click on the link below:

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1179559X17741290

Importance of Stem Cells

Stem cells are important for living organisms for many reasons. In the 3- to 5-day-old embryo, called a blastocyst, the inner cells give rise to the entire body of the organism, including all of the many specialized cell types and organs such as the heart, lung, skin, sperm, eggs and other tissues. In some adult tissues, such as bone marrow, muscle, and brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease.

Given their unique regenerative abilities, stem cells offer new potentials for treating diseases such as diabetes, and heart disease. However, much work remains to be done in the laboratory and the clinic to understand how to use these cells for cell-based therapies to treat disease, which is also referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine.

Laboratory studies of stem cells enable scientists to learn about the cells’ essential properties and what makes them different from specialized cell types. Scientists are already using stem cells in the laboratory to screen new drugs and to develop model systems to study normal growth and identify the causes of birth defects.

Research on stem cells continues to advance knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Stem cell research is one of the most fascinating areas of contemporary biology, but, as with many expanding fields of scientific inquiry, research on stem cells raises scientific questions as rapidly as it generates new discoveries.

To read the entire article, please click on the link below:

https://www.unmc.edu/stemcells/educational-resources/importance.html

A new therapy for treating Type 1 diabetes using stem cell therapy!

Promising early results show that longstanding Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) research may have paved the way for a breakthrough treatment of Type 1 diabetes. Utilizing research from the Melton Lab, Vertex Pharmaceuticals has developed VX-880, an investigational stem cell-derived, fully differentiated pancreatic islet cell replacement therapy for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In conjunction with immunosuppressive therapy, VX-880 produced robust restoration of islet cell function on Day 90 in the first patient in its Phase 1/2 clinical trial.

The patient was treated with a single infusion of VX-880 at half the target dose in conjunction with immunosuppressive therapy. The patient, who was diagnosed with T1D 40 years ago and has been dependent on exogenous (injected) insulin, achieved successful engraftment and demonstrated rapid and robust improvements in multiple measures. These included increases in fasting and stimulated C-peptide, improvements in glycemic control, including HbA1c, and decreases in exogenous insulin requirement, signifying the restoration of insulin-producing islet cells.

VX-880 is not only a potential breakthrough in the treatment of T1D, it is also one of the very first demonstrations of the practical application of embryonic stem cells, using stem cells that have been differentiated into functional islets to treat a patient, explained Doug Melton, Ph.D., co-director of HSCI, is the Xander University Professor at Harvard and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Unlike prior treatments, this innovative therapy gives the patient functional hormone producing cells that control glucose metabolism. This potentially obviates the lifelong need for patients with diabetes to self-inject insulin as the replacement cells “provide the patient with the natural factory to make their own insulin,” explained Melton.

These results from the first patient treated with VX-880 are unprecedented. What makes these results truly remarkable is that they were achieved with only half the target dose,” said Bastiano Sanna, Ph.D., Executive Vice President and Chief of Cell and Genetic Therapies at Vertex. “While still early, these results support the continued progression of our VX-880 clinical studies, as well as future studies using our encapsulated islet cells, which hold the potential to be used without the need for immunosuppression.”

“As a surgeon who has worked in the field of islet cell transplantation for decades, this approach, which obviates the need for an organ donor, could be a game changer,” said James Markmann, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Surgery and Chief of the Division of Transplant Surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital. “We are excited to progress this unique and potentially transformative medicine through clinical trials and to patients.”

“More than a decade ago our lab had a vision for developing an islet cell replacement therapy to provide a functional cure to people suffering from T1D,” said Melton, a founder and one of the first co-chairs of the Harvard Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology Department. “These promising results bring great hope that stem cell-derived, fully differentiated islet cells could deliver a life-changing therapy for people who suffer from the relentless life-long burden of T1D. I’m so grateful that Harvard and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute have supported this work.”

For more information on this clinical trial, please click on the link below:

https://hsci.harvard.edu/news/new-therapy-treating-type-1-diabetes

 

 

 

Aided by stem cells, a lizard regenerates a perfect tail for first time in more than 250 million years

 

Lizards can regrow severed tails, making them the closest relative to humans that can regenerate a lost appendage. But in lieu of the original tail that includes a spinal column and nerves, the replacement structure is an imperfect cartilage tube. Now, for the first time, a USC-led study in Nature Communications describes how stem cells can help lizards regenerate better tails.

“This is one of the only cases where the regeneration of an appendage has been significantly improved through stem cell-based therapy in any reptile, bird or mammal, and it informs efforts to improve wound healing in humans,” said the study’s corresponding author Thomas Lozito, an assistant professor of orthopaedic surgery and stem cell biology and regenerative medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC.

These new and improved lizard tails exhibit what is known as “dorsoventral patterning” — meaning they have skeletal and nerve tissue on the upper or dorsal side, and cartilage tissue on the lower or ventral side.

“Lizards have been around for more than 250 million years, and in all that time no lizard has ever regrown a tail with dorsoventral patterning, until now,” said Lozito. “My lab has created the first regenerated lizard tails with patterned skeletons.”

To achieve this, the team of scientists from the medical schools at USC and the University of Pittsburgh analyzed how lizard tails form during adult regeneration, compared to embryonic development. In both cases, neural stem cells or NSCs — the stem cells that build the nervous system — play a central role.

Adult NSCs produce a molecular signal that blocks skeletal and nerve formation and encourages cartilage growth, effectively “ventralizing” both sides of the tail. This results in the cartilage tube typical of regenerated tails.

To read the entire article, please click on the link below:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/10/211014141958.htm